Plain abdominal films “Four views of the abdomen” (acute abdomen series) includes a upright PA chest, plain abdominal film (“flat plate”), upright film, and a left lateral decubitus view of the abdomen. Bowel obstruction Small bowel obstruction may cause multiple

Laboratory evaluation

Rectal and pelvic examination Digital examination of the rectum may detect cancer, fecal impaction, or pelvic appendicitis. Stool should be checked for gross or occult blood. Pelvic examination. Vaginal discharge should be noted and cultured. Masses and tenderness should be

Medications. Physical examination

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs predispose to peptic ulcer disease. Antibiotic therapy may obscure the signs of peritonitis. Patients with abdominal pain and diarrhea who have received antibiotics may have pseudomembranous colitis. Anticoagulants. Warfarin therapy predisposes to retroperitoneal or intramural intestinal hemorrhage

Associated symptoms. Acute Abdomen

Constitutional symptoms (eg, fatigue, weight loss) suggests underlying chronic disease. Gastrointestinal symptoms Anorexia, nausea and vomiting are commonly associated with acute abdominal disorders. The frequency, character, and timing of these symptoms in relation to pain and time of the last

Acute Abdomen

Clinical evaluation of abdominal pain Onset and duration of the pain The duration, acuity, and progression of pain should be assessed, and the exact location of maximal pain at onset and at present should be determined. The pain should be

What is known about the biological effects of acupuncture

 3. What is known about the biological effects of acupuncture that helps us understand how it works? Many studies in animals and humans have demonstrated that acupuncture can cause multiple biological responses. These responses can occur locally, i.e., at or

What is the place of acupuncture in the treatment of various conditions

2. What is the place of acupuncture in the treatment of various conditions for which sufficient data are available, in comparison with or in combination with other interventions (including no intervention)? Assessing the usefulness of a medical intervention in practice

What is the efficacy of acupuncture

1. What is the efficacy of acupuncture, compared with placebo or sham acupuncture, in the conditions for which sufficient data are available to evaluate? Acupuncture is a complex intervention that may vary for different patients with similar chief complaints. The

Alternative Medicine

To address important issues regarding acupuncture, the NIH Office of Alternative Medicine and the NIH Office of Medical Applications of Research organized a 21 /2 -day conference to evaluate the scientific and medical data on the uses, risks, and benefits


Acupuncture is a component of the health care system of China that can be traced back for at least 2,500 years. The general theory of acupuncture is based on the premise that there are patterns of energy flow (Qi) through

Another reason why people get hammertoes

Another reason why people get hammertoes is they have neuromuscular problems which usually manifest as pes cavus or a very high arched foot. But as this mechanical overload occurs and it’s tendon imbalance occurs, what are some of the secondary

We need to do physical therapy

We need to do physical therapy. They need to strengthen the posterior tibial tendon, as I said before, that is the tendon that is going to help support the arch. They also need to work on the peroneus longus tendon.