Category Archives: Autism

Treatment for autism

FENFLURAMINE The finding of hyperserotonemia in one third of autistic children led to the hypothesis that autistic symptoms may be due to increased brain serotonin levels. That hypothesis in turn led to the study of fenfluramine, a serotonin depleter, in

Autism. Treatment

Behavior therapy Behavior therapy, which uses specific behavior modification procedures, may be helpful in establishing desired behaviors and eliminating problem behaviors in autistic children. After a behavioral analysis is performed, techniques such as shaping or prompting are used to develop

Sleeping and Eating Disturbances

SLEEPING AND EATING DISTURBANCES Sleep disturbances, such as reversal of sleep pattern and recurrent awakening at night, and eating disturbances, such as an aversion to certain foods because of their texture or smell, an insistence on eating a limited choice

Associated features

COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT Approximately 75 to 80 percent are mentally retarded, with the majority functioning in the moderate range of retardation. The retardation is not a consequence of social isolation, lack of motivation, or negativity while taking intelligence tests. Autistic persons

Medical Workup of Children

Medical Workup of Children with Autistic Disorder Physical examination (include measurement of head circumference, examination for minor physical anomalies and inspection of skin for adenoma sebaceum and hypo- and hyperpigmented areas) Neurological examination Neuropsychological testing Hearing test Test of visual

Qualitative impairment in verbal communication

Delays and abnormalities in language and speech are frequent presenting complaints of parents, and up to 50 percent of autistic children remain without spoken language. Babbling, which precedes words, may be absent. Autistic children often do not comprehend language spoken

Qualitative impairment in social interaction

Parents may recall a major event preceding the change, such as the birth of a sibling, the death of a grandparent, or a physical illness, but it is unclear whether the child was truly unimpaired prior to the event. As

Perinatal factors. Autism

A number of studies have shown an increased frequency of prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal complications in autistic children. The most frequently reported complications include bleeding after the first trimester and meconium staining of the amniotic fluid, an indication of fetal

Genetic factors. Autism

Results of family and twin studies have established the likelihood that genetic factors may influence or contribute to the development of autism. Three twin studies comparing concordance rates for autism in monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs found concordance rates


Autistic disorder is the best known of the pervasive developmental disorders. It is characterized by sustained impairments in reciprocal social interactions, communication deviance, and restricted, stereotypical behavioral patterns. According to DSM-IV, abnormal functioning in the above areas must be present