Monthly Archives: April 2008

This x-ray is actually from a newborn

This x-ray is actually from a newborn with tetralogy of Fallot but the point to make is that it does not often show the typical boot-shaped heart that we associate with tetralogy of Fallot. This, on the other hand, is

Whether to give oxygen

The question of whether to give oxygen is always interesting because the tendency with any blue baby of course would be to give oxygen. But to warn you that in some of our babies we are concerned about giving oxygen

Our cyanotic newborn

Let’s continue with the case presentation of our cyanotic newborn and what workup we might consider doing in helping us to focus first of all to distinguish this cyanotic congenital heart disease from other causes of cyanosis. Looking at these

Peripheral cyanosis and central cyanosis

As we think about the differential between peripheral cyanosis and central cyanosis, again a distinguishing feature with regards to the mucous membranes is that in peripheral cyanosis the mucous membranes are pink. In contrast to cyanotic mucous membranes in central

With regards to chromosome 21

With regards to chromosome 21 there is an association “Catch-22”. And the CATCH is an acronym for the defects that we commonly see here. This includes the cardiac anomalies, the facial abnormalities, the thymic hypoplasia, the cleft palate and the

Congenital Heart Disease

We are going to talk about congenital heart disease. Congenital heart disease represents about 1% of all live-born children; 8:1,000 of live-born children will have some form of congenital heart disease of varying severity. Some cases are very very mild

Now coxsackie A-9

Now coxsackie A-9; the reason I’m showing this is that this can cause rashes, maculopapular and petechial rashes, but it can also have vesicular and urticarial lesions. These frequently get misdiagnosed as contact dermatitis or poison ivy and bug bites.

Next is toxic shock syndrome

Next is toxic shock syndrome and this is also a staphylococcal toxin and sometimes a streptococcal toxin. This is similar to the erythrogenic toxin of scarlet fever and very different from exfoliative toxin from phage group II staph. Here the

Kawasaki Syndrome

Kawasaki’s disease is a disease of unknown etiology. The manifestations relate to super-antigen formation and it is a multi-system inflammatory disease. And the main thing is fever of five days or more and then four of the remaining five manifestations.

Etiology. Treatment

Etiology. The cause of narcolepsy has not yet been determined. Although a high association of certain class II human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) with narcolepsy accompanied by cataplexy suggests an immunologic pathogenesis, clinical evidence is lacking. The incidence of DR2 or


Narcolepsy is a chronic disorder of unknown etiology. Its usual onset is during the second or third decade of life, and it rarely occurs before age five or after age 50. The disorder is seen with equal frequency in men


Syphilis. Secondary stage is when you get meningovascular syphilis. If you have a 35-year-old person with a stroke, think meningovascular syphilis. In the secondary stage you can have a meningitis. It’s a subacute meningitis, catches cranial nerves very easily, just